The Stress and Fatigue Panel measures salivary levels of factors which are pertinent for those experiencing chronic or recurring issues of energy and / or immune health.
Cortisol is produced in the adrenal cortex within the adrenal gland. Functioning primarily to increase blood sugar through gluconeogenesis, it aids in the metabolism of fat, protein, carbohydrates, and also acts to suppress the immune system. This steroid hormone is released in response to stress and low blood-glucose levels.
Interleukin 1 beta
IL1β is a cytokine protein that is encoded by the IL1β gene. This is a mediator of inflammatory response. It is produced by activated macrophages as a proprotein and processed to its active form by caspase 1. It is involved in a variety of cellular activities including cell proliferation, apoptosis (programmed cellular death), and differentiation and can be associated with inflammatory pain hypersensitivity.
Tumor Necrosis Factor
TNF is a cell signaling protein and is one of the cytokines associated with acute phase reaction in systemic inflammation. Produced mainly by activated macrophages, it can be created by many cell types such as neutrophils, eosinophils, mast cells, neurons and CD4+ lymphocytes. Its main function is in the regulation of immune cells. As an endogenous pyrogen, TNF is able to incite inflammation, apoptosis, cachexia (sudden weight loss or wasting), and can inhibit tumorigenesis and viral replication. It has been implicated in many diseases such as cancer, depression, psoriasis, IBD, and Alzheimer’s disease.
Immunoglobulin A (IgA). This is an antibody which has a critical immune function in the mucous membranes. In fact, more IgA is produced in the body than any of the other antibodies combined.
DHEAS is the sulfate ester of DHEA. Most DHEAS is found in the blood at levels about 300x higher than free DHEA. DHEAS also has no diurnal variation as compared to DHEA. Therefore, measurement of DHEAS is preferred as the standard measurement due to the stability of levels. DHEA is converted to this sulfate form when it is taken orally and passes through the intestines and liver.